His reversal of Akbar’s policy of religious toleration resulted in weakening the entire structure of the Mughal empire. God has been in my heart yet my darkened eyes have not recognized his light. When I have lost hope in myself, how can I hope in others? Aurangzeb, therefore, attempted to destroy the power of the Rajputs and annex their kingdoms. To make his formal coronation in Delhi. The Hindu children were disallowed to study the fundamentals of their faith. Raja Jaswant Singh betrayed Aurangzeb one night before his main battle with Shah Jahan's army by fleeing from his rearguard entrenchment massacring and looting all the Mughals there, which led Aurangzeb to forever hold a grudge against Jaswant Singh and the Rathores. Shahu won this war with the help of Balaji vishwanath who became the Peshwa. Q3. Aurangzeb followed this policy as a matter of legacy. Demolishing temples and breaking idols: Even as a governor of Deccan he had pulled down several temples including the important Chintamani temple of Ahmedabad which he replaced with a mosque. Enumerate the factors that shaped Aurangzeb’s religious policy. Aurangzeb wanted to end the independent existence of the states of the South, because it was impossible to eliminate the power of the Marathas without ending their existence. Aurangzeb relied on the friendship of Rajput and this was clear when he appointed Maharaja Jaisingh to handle with Shivaji in Deccan. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was the founder of the Maratha Empire and he passed away in 1680. Aurangzeb’s Deccan policy was influenced partly by imperial interests and partly by the religious considerations. He placed restrictions on the starting of new pathshalas. This empire was also very vast and prosperous, so Aurangzeb wanted to have it under his control. Aurangzeb was born on 3 November 1618 AD. Aurangzeb’s Policies: Aurangzeb failed to realise that the vast Mughal Empire depended on the willing support of the people. But as it resulted in the complete breakdown of the efficiency, the order was slightly modified and Hindus were allowed to work on certain limited posts in the revenue department. Farewell!”, “Soul of my soul. 1676 AD In the Mughal suburb, Periyar Khan, forced Bijapur’s minister Siddi Masood to join the treaty. 228, Mahima Kopal, the round swivel was an important market for the sale of diamond diamonds worldwide, Shah Jahan’s empire expansion and war of succession, Introduction of life of Mughal emperor Akbar, Social, Religious and Economic situation in the period of Sangam, Founder of Mughal dynasty: Babur (1526-1530A.D. In Ibrahim Adilshah II, he had joined Bijapur. 4. Aurangzeb welcomed Sikandar Adilshah, gave him the title of Khan and an annual pension of 1 lakh rupees. These letters also indicate that he himself considered himself a failure as a ruler. Every torment I have inflicted, every sin I have committed, every wrong have done, I carry the consequence with me. Sikandar Adilshah died in a short life of 32 years. Jai Singh defeated him on June 22, 1665. The Hindiis could no longer put on fine clothes. And the sister of Sultan’s sister Shahzadi was sent to Delhi to accompany the princess to the princess. Four generations of Marathas Shivaji (1640-80), Shambha ji (1680-89), Rajaram (1689) -1700) and war against Tarabai (1700-1707), his widow. Aurangzeb issued very strict instructions to the officers regarding the collection of Jaziya: “You are free to grant remissions of revenue of all other kinds; but if you remit any man’s Jaziya which I succeeded with great difficulty in laying on the infidels it will be an impious charge and will cause the whole system of collecting the poll tax to fall into disorder.” It is alleged that when thousands of Hindus gathered to protest against this measure, the Emperor directed his elephants against the people so that many people fell trodden to death, under the feet of the elephants. Restrictions on Hindu educational institutions: For destroying the culture of the Hindus, Aurangzeb destroyed their several educational institutions at Varanasi, Multan and Thatta. Content Guidelines 2. Netaji Palkar was the second Sardar Senapati or Sarnaubat (Commander-in-Chief, Duke) of the Maratha Kingdom under Shivaji, the historical founder of the Maratha empire. ADVERTISEMENTS: When Aurangzeb heard of the growing power of Shivaji, he sent his general Shaista Khan. I have greatly sinned and know not what torment awaits me. Privacy Policy3. (1) Religious Policy of Aurangzeb: The most important cause of the downfall of the Mughal Empire was the religious policy of Aurangzeb. To adopt anti-Hindu measures. However, in 1689 Sambhaji was captured and executed by the Mughals on various charges, including rape and murder. Aurangzeb maintained the empire for nearly half a century and in fact extended it in the south as far as Tanjore (now Thanjavur) and Trichinopoly (now Tiruchchirappalli). Aurangzeb felt that he was superior not only had he become superior to administer the empire in a better way but also to protect and strengthen Islam particularly its Sunni faith. public, internal interest and personal finance (commercial fines). A few historians have tried to justify Aurangzeb’s religious policy. In Murtaza Khan mixed with Ahmad Nagar, and in 1619 AD to Bidar. The Hindus were not allowed to burn their dead on the banks of the river Sabarmati in Ahmedabad. Strange that I came with nothing into the world and now go away with this stupendous caravan of sins! This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. The extension of the empire was also one of the purposes of Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb made his first coronation on July 21, 1658, in Delhi after the conquest of Samujarh and after assuming power in Agra and assumed the title of Abul Muzaffar Alamgir. Aurangzeb 1636-44 in the time of Shah Jahan By the time the Sub-South remained as the Subedar and made Aurangabad the capital of the South Suburbs of the Mughals. The Deccan policy of the Mughals was not determined by any single factor. Akbar had abolished this tax on the Hindus but Aurangzeb again levied this tax. The general view of historians is that Aurangzeb entirely reversed the policy of religious toleration followed by Akbar and it resulted in serious revolts among the Hindus. Since Hindus were quite rich, they had to bear the burden of various taxes. To be honest, Padunath's Aurangzeb series (5 volumes) and Shivaji & His Times deserve a sweeping read through for this same reason. You should accept my last will. On the place called Bohan near Ujjain, Shah Jahan’s dear wife Mumtaz Mahal was born in the womb. Getting jobs after conversion also became easier. The Hindus were not allowed to occupy high administrative or executive posts. But what is the use? And according to his last wish, he was buried near the grave of religious teacher, After joining Bijapur in the empire, Aurangzeb started his journey in 1686 AD. Question 9. But after finally defeating Shuja and Dara in the battle of Khanjwa and Devagirai, again on 5 June 1659 AD. The three powers in the Deccan with which he had to deal were the Marathas and the two Shiah states of Bijapur and Golkunda. Aurangzeb wanted to end the independent existence of the states of the South, because it was impossible to eliminate the power of the. In accordance with this policy in 1723 he made an incursion into Malwa, collected chauth, which deeply hurt the Mughal Empire. Total Views : 5,797. To make his formal coronation in Delhi. But up to 1681, Aurangzeb won on appreciable success in the Deccan. He was intolerant towards other faiths, especially Hindus. Shivaji's father Shahji had served as an officer in the kingdom of Bijapur that Shivaji now claimed as Maratha land. It is said that this is the graveyard of South India Aurangzeb. According to Elliot, the object of reimposing the Jaziya or poll tax “was to curb the infidels and to distinguish the land of the faithful from an infidel land.” Manucci however, holds that the object of the tax was two-fold; first to fill up his treasury which had begun to shrink on account of expenditure on his various military campaigns; secondly to force the Hindus to embrace Islam. A general order prohibiting the employment of the Hindus in the revenue department was passed in 1670. However, Aurangzeb cancelled the arrangements at the last minute, as he was uncertain about the intentions of the Maratha. He was also against Shia Muslims. TOS4. Ultimately all these contributed to the downfall of the Mughal enterprise. The strategic importance of the Deccan states and the administrative and economic necessity of the Mughal empire largely guided the attitude of the Mughal rulers towards the Deccan states. Come what will, I have launched my bark upon the waters! Regarding special taxes imposed upon the Hindus, it is argued that Aurangzeb was in need of money to carry out his policy of expansion. What were the objectives of Aurangzeb’s Deccan policy? Besides this political motive, he desired to annex these states because their rulers were Shias. 1619 AD to Bidar. Rajput Policy of Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb’s religious policy had two aspects i.e: (i) To promote the tenets of Islam and to ensure that the people led their lives accordingly. Do you agree? After the death of Shambhaji, the struggle continued with the Mughals of the Marathas under the leadership of his half brother Rajaram, who is famous for the freedom struggle in Maratha history. 1. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about history. Aurangzeb in 1665 AD In the first instance, King Jaysingh (Jaipur) sent to repel. The earliest reference to the term Maratha Dharma is found in the Guru Charitra of the 15th century in the context of an ethical policy of a great enlightened state. There is simply no comparison between Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and Delhi Sultan Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (“Man of Ideas”) the two were totally different. image source: gopalwrites.files.wordpress.com/2013/10/d3b72-p3.jpg, He must have been fully conscious of the dangerous path he was pursuing, and well aware … against every Hindu sentiment. But despite the eight-month gap, the Mughals did not get any success.In the end, Aurangzeb lured an Afghan named Abdullagani and joined him and betrayed his master and opened the gate of the fort. Then it started when Shivaji attacked Ahmednagar and, Aurangzeb in 1660 AD In the south of Mughal subedar. His methods were iconoclasm, sacrilege, economic repression, bribery, forced conversion and restriction of worship.”. After becoming the emperor, Aurangzeb ended the main objections (local taxes), for the purpose of reducing the financial problems of the public, internal interest and personal finance (commercial fines). All sorts of promises were made to the converted. He therefore, imposed different kinds of taxes. Aurangzeb’s predecessors, especially Akbar had appointed a large number of Hindus in the various departments, but Aurangzeb followed the policy of removal of the Hindus from these jobs. DISCLAIMER : This article is a translation of original Hindi article. Shivaji at the age of 19 inherited his family's wealth and land and rose to the status of chieftain operating from the western ghats near Pune. It is a historical fictional novel. It should not happen that Musalmans be killed and the reproach should fall on the head of this useless creature. I grieve for your helplessness. Mard Mahratta Memeposting- Artworks by Paul Hardy from "The Last of the Peshwas" Artwork. In Deccan Aurangzeb failed to assess the situation realistically hence unable to take actions.Shivaji had carved out an independent Maratha state in the territories north and south of Konkan. Deccan policy of Aurangzeb had political as well as religious purpose. Farewell! They had acted as pillars of support, but Aurangzeb’s policy turned them to bitter foes. , again on 5 June 1659 AD. He followed this practice vigorously after becoming emperor of India. Hence, began the downfall of Moguls and the great resurrection of Marathas, with latter winning the final contest. Whatever I look I see only God. During the time of Aurangzeb the Deccan situation was completely different due to the rise of Marathas under the brave leadership of Shivaji. I am sourly troubled; May the peace of God be upon you.”, Indian History, Mughal Emperors, Aurangzeb, Religious Policy, Religious Policy of Aurangzeb. The most famous of the temples destroyed were those of Keshva (Krishan Janmabhoomi) in Mathura, Vishwanath in Varanasi and Somnath in Kathiawar. A general order prohibiting the employment of the Hindus in the revenue department was passed in 1670. The Maratha campaign continually drained … In the twelfth year of his rule, he ordered the demolition of all important and famous temples within his empire. His Deccan campaigns against the Shia Sultans were also the outcome of his expansionist policy. It led to several conflicts and wars in different parts of the country. And conquering the fort of the Mughals, Shivaji’s first struggle with the Mughals was 1656 AD. Q2. Shah Alam led his forces to face Marathas at the Karnataka border, whereas Azam Shah attacked Khandesh. Forcing the, As a result of the Treaty of Purandar, Shivaji was handed over to his Mughals with four lakhs of rupees, and promised to help the Mughals against, Under the terms of the Treaty of Purandar, in the, 1690 AD Until the Mughal empire was on its climax, which spread from. 1687 AD In Aurangzeb himself attacked Golconda and surrounded the fort. Reference : https://www.indiaolddays.com/, Address May peace of God be upon you.”, “I know not what punishment be in store for me to suffer. 5. But then he disturbed Mughal-Rajput relationship by unnecessarily interfering in affairs of Marwar and Mewar. As these people were very strong and courageous and they also did not accept the overlordship of the ruler. The Marathas got not only military and administrative experience but also received a … Aurangzeb also felt that the existence of these states enabled the Marathas to enrich themselves. Holi and Diwali festivals were allowed to be celebrated with certain restrictions. Rajwade formulated the idea that it was Maratha Dharma that led to the political independence of the Marathas based on aggressive Hinduism. The Rajputs were the greatest obstacle in his pursuance of policy against the Hindus. Haig draws the picture of the religious policy of Aurangzeb in the following words: “Aurangzeb was a bigot to whom the religion of the great majority of his subjects was anathema, mischief, idolatry, which it was his duty before heaven to persecute and if possible to stamp out. sikarsuman@gmail.com Shaista Khan barely escaped his life, but his thumb was cut off. To begin with, he forbade their building new temples and repairing old ones. Rajput policies adopted by Aurangzeb were strict and stern. The Hindus were not allowed to occupy high administrative or executive posts. Despite constant threat from the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, the Sambhaji-led Maratha forces never lost a battle to the forces led by Aurangzeb for eight consecutive years. May 18, 1637 AD Aurangzeb was married to Princess Dilrass Bano Begum (Rabiya Bibi) of the Persian monarchy. Now I am going alone. Following were the anti-Hindu measures adopted by Aurangzeb: 1. The Deccan Policy of Aurangzeb was very aggresive. View Entire Discussion (0 Comments) More posts from the MahrattaPosting community. He imposed Jajiya on all the Hindus in the country. Aurangzeb in 1665 AD Jai Singh sent against Shivaji. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. It should not happen that Musalmans be killed and the blame for their death rest upon this useless creature. Archives Test 5 : History Optional Mains Marathon Q1.Akbar build Mughal Empire by enlisting support of Rajput, Aurangzeb destroyed it by eliminating them. M.G. It is said that as the destruction of Napoleon by the canker of Spain, destruction of the Deccan destroyed Aurangzeb. Shivaji initiated his attack first by capturing the fort of Torangarh and then eventually constructed a series of forts all over the Deccan region. Yet he chose this course, and adhered to this with unbending resolve through close on fifty years of unchallenged sovereignty.”, Dr. S.R. Later on Muslim traders were totally exempted from the payment of this tax. The Hindu prisoners were freed on their conversion to Islam. The three powers in the Deccan with which he had to deal were the Marathas and the two Shiah states of Bijapur and Golkunda. Answer: Aurangzeb wanted to crush the growing powers of the Maratha’s. 9660385185, Youtube After the death of Maharaja Jaswant Singh of Marwar, he declared Indersingh as the new ruler of Marwar. After Aurangzeb’s enthronement, a Persian envoy led by Budaag Velas was sent to the Mughal court, which Manuichi described in his book Stories The Mogor very much. Shivaji also began raiding trading establishmen… It is generally accepted that Aurangzeb was a fanatic Sunni Mussalman. I commit your and your sons to the care of God and bid you farewell. The Maratha soldiers fell upon the army of Bijapur and routed them. Similar restrictions were placed at Delhi on the river Jamuna. Maratha Power: Shahu grandson of Shivaji Maharaj was a prisoner of Aurangzeb. Total Videos : 79 Aurangzeb was prepared to grant Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj 's swarajya to Shahu and the right of sardeshmukhi over the Deccan, thus recognizing his special position. Aurangzeb’s religious policy had two aspects i.e: To promote the tenets of Islam and to ensure that the people led their lives accordingly. He lost the support of the Rajputs who had contributed greatly to the strength of the Empire. Behind this imposing facade, however, were serious weaknesses. This victory greatly enhanced the prestige of the Maratha chief. About the letters Dr. V. Smith says that “The sternest critic of the character and deeds of Aurangzeb can hardly refuse to recognise the pathos of these lamentations or to feel some sympathy for the old man on his lonely death-bed.”, “My years have gone by profitless. In the first year of his reign, he issued orders to the governor of Orissa to demolish all temples in the province. The Deccan Policy of Aurangzeb was very aggresive. Besides negligence of Aurangzeb towards the affairs of the Deccan during early period of his reign, and, later on, his attempt to conquer the entire Deccan which provoked the resistance of the Marathas for the safety of their Jagirs and homelands (Vatans) and the inclusion of all sections of the people of Maharashtra in the Maratha army, etc. Seeing his plan failing, Aurangzeb ordered his sons, Shah Alam and Azam Shah, to attack the Maratha army from two sides. was conversion to Islam. Stress the evolution of Mughal Deccan policy from Akbar to Aurangzeb. Marathas constantly employed guerilla warfare tactics, scorched earth policy, attacked and plundered Mogul supplies and campaigns at will. He was an imperialist and he wanted to strengthen his hold on his subjects. The messenger board was welcomed, which was gifted by 60 Arabic horses and a round of 37 carat pearls and Shah’s choice paan leaves were gifted as gifts. Religious policy of Aurangzeb was based on the Islamic theory of kinship. Removal of the Hindus from Government jobs: Aurangzeb’s predecessors, especially Akbar had appointed a large number of Hindus in the various departments, but Aurangzeb followed the policy of removal of the Hindus from these jobs. He set his camp in Poona. I commit you and your sons to the care of God and bid you farewell. There is no hope for me in the future. It is believed that extinction of the states of Bijapur and Golconda was a prior necessity for the destruction of the power of the Marathas in the Deccan. One night Shivaji entered Shaista’s camp with his men dressed in the guise of a marriage party. The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was a power that dominated a large portion of the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century. They were not allowed to attend Muslim Madaras and Maqtabs. Aurangzeb alienated the sympathy and support of the Hindus by committing all sorts of atrocities on them. The following is a series of illustrations from the book "The Last of the Peshwas" by Michael Macmillan. The Deccan Policy of Aurangzeb: Right from the time of Akbar, the Mughal emperors were following the Deccan policy traditionally. All these rebellions destroyed the peace of the empire, disrupted its economy, weakened the administrative structure, diminished its military strength, led to the failure of Aurangzeb to make any impact. But no argument is put forward by the protagonists of this view as why he took pains to demolish temples and break idols. Though my trust be in the mercy of goodness of God, I deplore my sins. 1682 AD In pursuing his son Shahjada Akbar, Aurangzeb reached South India but after that he did not get the opportunity to come to North India. Over 70 Maratha sardars actually assembled to receive Shahu. Sharma, writing about the acts of religious intolerance of Aurangzeb has observed, “These were not the acts of a righteous ruler of constructive statesman, but the outbursts of blind fanaticism, unworthy of the great genius that Aurangzeb undoubtedly possessed in all other aspects.”. Ranade and V.K. The Hindu traders were required to pay a toll tax of 5 per cent as against half of it paid by the Muslim traders. In Mewar alone, he is said to have demolished 240 temples. The following three letters written by him to his sons clearly establish the fact that he was a staunch Musalman and he wanted to promote his religion. 1663 AD In Shivaji, secretly attacked the castle of Shaista Khan at Poona in night. Aurangzeb issued order that except Rajputs, no Hindu could ride an elephant, a horse and a palanquin. Mosques were built at the sites of different temples. Aurangzeb’s religious policy was largely based on his analysis of the first half of Aurangzeb’s reign, which in his opinion was climaxed by the rein position of Jizyah (poll tax). All about India History & Current Affairs. Aurangzeb reversed the policy which was enunciated by Akbar and pursued by Jahangir and Shah Jahan. Jagatpura, Jaipur-303905, indiaolddays.com Posted by 1 day ago. Aurangzeb deliberately reversed the policy of his predecessors toward non-Muslim subjects by trying to enforce the principles and practices of the Islamic state. also helped the rise of the Maratha power. This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our websiteGot it! This demoralised Aurangzeb and his forces but immensely boosted Maratha morale. 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